Journal of African Theatre, Film and Media Discourse <p style="text-align: justify;">The inaugural Journal of African Theatre, Film and&nbsp;Media Discourse aims at<br>1) Evaluating the interactions existing&nbsp;between Culture, Film, Literature, Theatre Arts and mass media;<br>2)&nbsp;Examining the role culture plays in genre-formation, i.e.,&nbsp;development, integration, and assimilation, whilst creating an&nbsp;interdisciplinary forum for the presentation of the new advances and&nbsp;research results in the respective fields of Genre studies and Culture. Particular emphasis will be placed on examining the depth and&nbsp;complexity of said genre-based processes domains, applications and&nbsp;manifestations when viewed from the perspectives of the disciplines of&nbsp; Film, Theatre Arts and Communication.</p> Kenyatta University en-US Journal of African Theatre, Film and Media Discourse 2520-7210 Potentials of Drama Therapy in Unmasking the Personae of Survivors of Female Genital Mutilation among the Kenyan Maasai <p>Circumcision of females was and still remains a cultural practice in many&nbsp;African communities. While modernity and access to education has led to&nbsp;vilification of this tradition, the guardians and conservators of traditions&nbsp;who perceive not virtue but abomination in this revolution intrepidly use&nbsp;myths and falsehoods to sustain the tradition. Where that does not work,&nbsp;force is used. The Maasai are such a community where circumcision of&nbsp;women is still entrenched and highly esteemed. Some girls manage to&nbsp;escape but the effects of the harrowing escape remain. Subsequently, this&nbsp;study proceeds from the postulation that drama therapy is a useful tool&nbsp;not only to reach out to the survivors of any form of distress but also as&nbsp;an avenue for helping the victims cope while enhancing their selfexpression by obliterating the facade engendered by the trauma. Our&nbsp;contention is that as a tool for unlocking the voices of Female Genital&nbsp;Mutilation (FGM) survivors, drama therapy creates a safe and playful&nbsp;environment where the survivors are able to act out their anxieties, fears&nbsp;and mental conflicts and reclaim their true beings, dreams and positions in&nbsp;society. In this way, drama therapy provides a platform on which the&nbsp;stigma related to FGM emotions can be expelled. While using various&nbsp;drama therapy techniques such as story-telling, poetry, role playing, song&nbsp;and dance, this paper examines and establishes how drama therapy can be&nbsp;used as an effective tool in regaining the real persona of survivors of&nbsp;Female Genital Mutilation. The study employs Nietzsche’s Will to Power&nbsp;theory and Rogerian theory of self in interrogating the potentials of drama&nbsp;therapy. Nietzsche’s Will to Power theory has been used to explore&nbsp;underlying motives behind the survivors’ rebellion against Female Genital&nbsp;Mutilation whereas Rogerian theory of Self has been used in exploring the&nbsp;survivors’ perception of their world, perception of the concepts of&nbsp;freedom, choice and personal responsibility, particularly after surviving&nbsp;Female Genital Mutilation. The study utilizes control-group as its research&nbsp;design while engaging in-depth interviews, questionnaires, focus group&nbsp;discussions and participatory theatre to obtain data for analysis. The data&nbsp;collected was analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively.</p> Zippora Okoth John Mugubi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-27 2020-01-27 1 1 5 34 10.33886/kujat.v1i1.123 A Critical Gender Analysis of James Atu Alachi’s Enekole <p>Gender is a concept that has gained so much attention in the&nbsp;theatre today. This is due to the current agitation and&nbsp;turbulent struggle that women have been doing because of the&nbsp;oppression, mistreatment and relegation they face every day as&nbsp;a result of patriarchy – the culture of male domination that has&nbsp;secured a foothold mostly in dramas written by male&nbsp;playwrights. James Atu Alachi seems to be different. This paper,&nbsp;through the analytical approach, attempts an investigation into&nbsp;one of Alachi’s plays, Enekole, in order to point out the fact&nbsp;that there are male playwrights of this present generation that&nbsp;can join their creative hands with those of the female&nbsp;playwrights to ensure a gender sensitive and equal Africa.</p> Solomon Obidah Yamma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-27 2020-01-27 1 1 35 43 10.33886/kujat.v1i1.122 The Gender Agenda in Kenyan Children’s Feature Films <p>The gender agenda has featured substantially in creative works from&nbsp;Africa and particularly Kenya. Although film is considered a new&nbsp;form of creative expression in Africa, compared to the west, it has&nbsp;not been excluded in exploring gender issues. While the gender&nbsp;discussion has prominently featured adults, the Kenyan film has gone&nbsp;a step further and explored gender on a different level. Gender has&nbsp;been explored from the point of view of the child and employed the&nbsp;child character as a suitable medium. Kenyan filmmakers by&nbsp;employing the child character on the subject of gender seem to&nbsp;suggest that engendering of any member of the society begins in&nbsp;childhood and progresses into adulthood. This is a unique aspect&nbsp;about the Kenyan film yet has not been critically examined. This&nbsp;paper therefore examines the child character and the exploration of&nbsp;gender in Kenyan films about children to ascertain the significance of&nbsp;the child character in exploring gender issues in society. It focuses&nbsp;on three selected films that extensively explore the engendering of&nbsp;children namely: Subira, Malika and Becoming A Girl. The films&nbsp;mainly focus on the engendering of the girl child by the society and&nbsp;that this happens in childhood. They also employ the girl child as a<br>character in exploring the issue of gender. Examination of the child&nbsp;character will be guided by the Sociological theory of film and the&nbsp;Formalist film theory. The structure of the paper is as follows: A&nbsp;background on the gender issue in creative works, theoretical&nbsp;perspectives on gender, analysis of Kenyan children’s films on gender&nbsp;and conclusions on the use of the child character in exploring&nbsp;gender.</p> Evelyn Ojiambo-Hongo John Mugubi Rosemary Nyaole ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-12 2020-02-12 1 1 44 56 10.33886/kujat.v1i1.125 Film as an Artefact <p>Films are important sites to access materials about a community's&nbsp;history and heritage. This paper, from an Afrocentric point of view&nbsp;and guided by post-colonial literary criticism, interrogates the two&nbsp;films; Nairobi Half Life and The Kitchen Toto with a view to&nbsp;establish the extent to which filmic representations can reflect the&nbsp;society. It looks at how the forces that were /are present in colonial&nbsp;and post-colonial Kenya have been developed in the two films. The&nbsp;paper, specifically looks at the issues of governance and identity in&nbsp;&nbsp;the Kenyan society and focuses on how the forces present in the&nbsp;colonial and post-colonial Kenyan government divided people in&nbsp;terms of ‘us’ and the ‘other’ (colonizer-colonized in The Kitchen&nbsp;Toto and haves and have-nots in Nairobi Half Life) with the process&nbsp;of ‘othering’ resulting into alienation and loss of identity. It traces&nbsp;the protagonists’ conscious struggle and move to relocate&nbsp;themselves from the strictures and imprisoning experiences of&nbsp;‘othering’, appraising the protagonist’s denial of this alienation in his&nbsp;acceptance of homecoming. Thus the issue the study tackles is that&nbsp;of Kenyans loss, the subsequent alienation from their culture and&nbsp;their own selves and the struggle to reclaim these selves once the&nbsp;realization of that loss is made. The paper lays bare social issues&nbsp;such as how socio-economic issues can contribute to one becoming&nbsp;a criminal; in Nairobi Half Life, and how a specific class/group of&nbsp;people in the society can be ‘criminalized’ in The Kitchen Toto. The&nbsp;conclusion reveals that the protagonists find their identity and&nbsp;fulfilment in the totality of their religions, culture ancestral heritage&nbsp;and a sense of belonging. The paper is based on the argument that&nbsp;films mirror the society.</p> Lencer Achieng’ Ndede, Simon Peter Otieno Miriam Musonye ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-12 2020-02-12 1 1 57 72 10.33886/kujat.v1i1.126 Madagascar Escape to Africa and Parents’ Career Expectations for Children <p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="fontstyle0">This essay is a thematic review of a computer animated comedy filmMadagascar Escape 2 Africa. It highlights the rich thematic&nbsp;embodiment of the film. Entertainment-Education has been adopted&nbsp;as a theoretical framework for analysis, owing to the fact that it&nbsp;emphasizes infusion of educational oriented content into the&nbsp;production of entertainment programmes/media content to achieve&nbsp;attitudinal change in society. Five themes have been identified from&nbsp;the film and discussed, namely: the usefulness/relevance of every&nbsp;talent/skill, the power of unity/friendship, innovation, adventure and&nbsp;love. The central thesis in the essay is that all talents are relevant&nbsp;and important to the growth and development of society as&nbsp;contained in the film under review, hence parents are advised to&nbsp;identify talents which their children have and guide them accordingly&nbsp;to exploit and utilize them to the fullest. This is against the career&nbsp;imposition trait of most parents, which often time leads to poor&nbsp;performance of children in careers they have no passion for.&nbsp;Conclusively, the study recommends the&nbsp; Entertainment-Education&nbsp;approach to producers of children films and media content to help&nbsp;reduce the cultivation effect that arises from the projection of&nbsp;violence, crime, nudity and profane scenes in cartoons and children&nbsp;programmes. This will go a long way to help achieve the desired&nbsp;attitudinal change in society.</span> </p> Dauda Ishaya Suntai Simon Targema Tordue ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 1 1 73 85 10.33886/kujat.v1i1.127 Identity and Musical Score in Tosh Gitonga’s Nairobi Half Life <p>This paper draws attention to the use of music as a&nbsp;narratological device and marker of identity with close&nbsp;reference to Nairobi Half life by Tosh Gitonga. With close&nbsp;analysis within cultural narratology the paper contests the&nbsp;loose usage of musical scores in Kenyan films and emphasizes&nbsp;that African film with an African score defines the cultural&nbsp;milieu of the setting and thus places itself noticeably and&nbsp;contextually on a world platform. Such composition is ‘fresh’&nbsp;with an unmistakeable identity and is a pedestal Kenyan films&nbsp;are yet to fully claim. The research also notes that Kenyan&nbsp;music like Ayub Ogada’s Koth Biro has been used in several&nbsp;international films like The Constant Gardener to give the&nbsp;production a feel of an African context for the western&nbsp;audience. While pointing out the lack of musical direction in&nbsp;some Kenyan films and television programmes the paper states&nbsp;that the practice of film scoring can be learned but also&nbsp;demands a lot of intuition and a deep understanding of the&nbsp;people’s love of music. It emphasizes that the practice demands&nbsp;not only practical experience but also learned&nbsp;observation/listening to perfect the art of making the viewer ‘to&nbsp;see the sound and hear the picture’. The paper reflects&nbsp;conclusively that Kenya is devoid of musicians who specialise in&nbsp;film scoring and that film makers need to empower the&nbsp;musicians along the same by budgeting and involving them in&nbsp;the making of the films.</p> Simon Peter Otieno ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 1 1 86 96 Female Mask/Masquerade in Nigeria, Aesthetics and the Art of Secret Societies <p>The Dramatic performance by actors in masks and costumes&nbsp;still remains enigmatic. The ideological context of mask, and&nbsp;masquerade in Africa is associated with the spirit world which&nbsp;is an act of secret society dominated by men’s world. This&nbsp;paper focused on the role, performances and contributions of&nbsp;women in masquerade performances in Nigeria. The symbolism&nbsp;of women’s aesthetics, cosmology, mythology, performance,&nbsp;Genre, audience participation, construction, and originators&nbsp;and custodians of mask and masquerade is highlighted as&nbsp;emerging trends of feminist discuss in contemporary theatre&nbsp;performances as central to women liberation in men’s&nbsp;dominated society. The paper concludes the role and place of&nbsp;women in taking the masquerade performances, economic,&nbsp;social, political, culture empowerment from it’s inception as&nbsp;custodians of Spiritism.</p> Esther Akumbo Nyam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 1 1 97 104 10.33886/kujat.v1i1.129 Kenyan Television Stand-up Comedy as a Reflection of Societal Mentality <p>The held mantra for comedy is laughing at ourselves, meaning&nbsp;that the jokes and situations highlighted by a stand-up&nbsp;comedian are a reflection of societal values and norms that may&nbsp;in turn be idiotic in nature but still held dear by the society.&nbsp;The norms maybe like a ritual that though at times&nbsp; ineffectual&nbsp;and at times detrimental is still held as a part of the societal&nbsp;code and cannot be discarded easily. Indeed the traditional&nbsp;venue of a typical stand-up comedian has been the pub,&nbsp;performing to an audience that is inebriated, but with the&nbsp;increased popularity of stand-up comedy in Kenyan television&nbsp;the audience has increased tenfold but the substance of the&nbsp;jokes is yet to be analysed in detail. This paper tries to look at&nbsp;the performances of different stand-up comedians in the&nbsp;Kenyan television while analysing the nature of their jokes in&nbsp;relations to the idiosyncrasies in society.</p> Beneah Shapaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 1 1 120 128 10.33886/kujat.v1i1.130 Grappling with Corruption in Democratic Nigeria <p>Nigeria, especially since its return to democratic governance in&nbsp;1999, has been inherently laden and plagued with the malady&nbsp;known as corruption. Corruption remains the greatest undoing&nbsp;and bane of the nation’s socio-economic and political&nbsp;development as well as democratic consolidation.&nbsp; Evidently,&nbsp;the menace of corruption in a democratic ambience as Nigeria&nbsp;corrodes public trust in the system, magnifies unemployment&nbsp;and intensifies underdevelopment in all sectors of the&nbsp;economy. It is akin to a cancerous disease that spreads very&nbsp;rapidly through the host, destroys cells, weakens the body and&nbsp;in the process of time kills its victim. Although it pervades&nbsp;every strata of the society, this study is an exploration of the&nbsp;concept and context of political corruption with regards to&nbsp;political elites who hold positions of authority and in control of&nbsp;the society’s common wealth as exemplified in the play, Dawn&nbsp;of Awareness by Felix Akinsipe. This paper argues that&nbsp;sustainable development and political stability in Nigeria will&nbsp;remain a mirage for as long as political corruption continue to&nbsp;hold sway and remain unimpeded by not curbing the impunity&nbsp;with which political office holders indulge in corrupt practices.&nbsp;The paper recommends that stringent punitive measures must&nbsp;be put in place as well as value re-orientation for all public&nbsp;officers holding leadership positions.</p> Reuben Embu Samuel O Igomu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 1 1 129 146 10.33886/kujat.v1i1.131 From Primary Orality to Secondary Orality <p>There are two sides to the phenomenon of globalization: the positive&nbsp;and the negative. On the negative side, it is apparent that indigenous&nbsp;cultures and performances are being dangerously diluted and&nbsp;annihilated due to the unprecedented proliferation of globalized values&nbsp;and norms. On the positive however, globalization has opened up many&nbsp;cultures to the world by removing physical distances and space,&nbsp;creating a phenomenon of cultural syncretism evident in information&nbsp;and communication technologies. In this paper, the researcher tries to&nbsp;examine the possibility of internationalizing Nyum Onzho and some&nbsp;aspects of the theatre in order to promote, showcase and project its&nbsp;theatricality across the world through the instrumentality of the&nbsp;variables of globalization such as the television, video-film format and&nbsp;internet sources.Among the Eggon, a story is called Onzho and the art&nbsp;of the storytelling itself is called Nyum Onzho. Hence, Nyum Onzho is&nbsp;the art of storytelling. The aim of this performance is to produce an&nbsp;individual who is transparent, honest, respectful, skilful, and cooperative&nbsp;and one who could conform to the social order of the society. This art&nbsp;of storytelling is central to the life of every Eggon person. It is largely&nbsp;secular and the most eclectic and dynamic in form and content.This&nbsp;paper also explores the proposition for a paradigm shift from primary&nbsp;orality to secondary orality. That is, from its original face-to-face format&nbsp;into the digital format.It also examines how Nyum Onzho performance&nbsp;and the indices of globalisation could be adapted to each other and&nbsp;harnessed in the service of development objectives of the Eggon&nbsp;people. This paper concludes that, despite the challenges, losses and&nbsp;treat inherent in globalization, there are also significant gains,<br>opportunities and benefits the advent of globalization has offered. It&nbsp;therefore becomes imperative for the Eggon people to key into these&nbsp;numerous benefits and opportunities globalization has provided to&nbsp;internationalize, promote and showcase their culture and cultural&nbsp;performance to the global community.</p> Hussaini U. Tsaku ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 1 1 146 163 10.33886/kujat.v1i1.132